After consecutive years of drought, food insecurity is tightening its grip as Southern Africa enters the peak of the lean season, that period before the next harvest in March/April when food stocks become increasingly depleted.
The 2015/16 El Niño weather event, which meant reduced rains for most of the region, resulted in poor or failed harvests in most countries in 2016. Some 16 million people in the countries worst-hit by drought need emergency humanitarian assistance, according to assessment data from the Southern African Development Community (SADC).
During 2015/2016, many countries in the region declared national states of emergency due to drought and all but one of South Africa's nine provinces, which account for 90 percent of the country's maize production, declared drought disaster areas.
In mid-2016, WFP categorized the Southern Africa region as a Level 3 Corporate Response - its highest level of emergency. Seven countries are covered by WFP's emergency response: Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
Prices of maize and other staple crops remain high and above the average for this time of year. Meanwhile, the incomes of the poorest have been reduced by lack of casual labouring opportunities, triggering all sorts of negative coping mechanisms as families struggle to feed themselves.
WFP is rapidly scaling up life-saving operations for the most vulnerable communities in the worst-affected countries. WFP is working to reach growing numbers of people with food and cash-based relief while strengthening resilience building.
In the cases of all countries, the planned scale-up is subject to the availability of resources. The balance of needs is expected to be addressed by both governments and non-government counterparts.
What the World Food Programme is doing to respond to the Southern Africa Emergency
A third of the population are food insecure. WFP is providing both food and cash-based relief in the most food-insecure areas and is scaling up to reach some 600,000 people through all assistance programmes in early 2017. Under a partnership with FAO, WFP-assisted people are provided with agricultural inputs so they can start farming during the rainy season. WFP is focusing on resilience building through watershed management projects to help communities withstand climatic shocks and through capacity building to strengthen the government’s early warning response system.
More than 90 percent of the population lives on less than $2/day, and the situation in the semi-arid south is pushing hundreds of thousands close to the edge of disaster. WFP has been reaching some 850,000 people with food assistance, cash transfers and nutritional support and is scaling up to reach a million drought-affected people in coming months. However, due to funding shortages, WFP has been obliged to institute rations cuts for those receiving emergency relief and requires additional resources to continue providing assistance to those most in need.
40 percent of the population are food insecure. WFP has been scaling up its operations to reach some 6 million food insecure people. WFP's relief assistance is being linked increasingly with the creation of productive assets such as community vegetable gardens and irrigation systems. A shortage of funding for WFP's non-maize commodities and cash-based transfers is of concern. WFP is pre-positioning food stocks in parts of the south, which are prone to flooding during the rainy season. WFP also requires additional funding to provide assistance to some 32,000 refugees in camps at Dzaleka and in Luwani.
Some 2.3 million people are food insecure and need emergency food assistance. Poor harvests, combined with currency devaluations, resulted in huge increases in the price of maize during 2016. WFP is currently scaling up its relief operations to reach 700,000 food-insecure people by early 2017. WFP is providing assistance of various kinds - food for people building and restoring community assets, emergency school feeding and treatment of moderate acute malnutrition amongst children, and pregnant and nursing women. WFP is meanwhile preparing to respond to floods which can hit during the January/February cyclone season.
638,000 people – nearly half the population – will face some food insecurity while 350,000 people will need urgent food assistance by the peak of the lean season. Water sources declined by more than 50 percent during 2016 and there was widespread crop failure due to lack of rain. WFP is scaling up its food and cash-based relief operations aiming to reach some 315,000 vulnerable people by 2017 through both development and emergency operations. The health and nutrition status of people living with HIV is of particular concern in a country where the prevalence of HIV/AIDS is 26 percent among the adult population.
While there are nearly 1 million people in Zambia in need of food relief, the Government of Zambia has not asked WFP for emergency support. Under a Home Grown School Meals programme run jointly with the government, nearly 78,000 children are receiving school meals. Through an innovative project (known as R4) WFP is enhancing resilience of smallholder farmers against climate shocks. WFP has deployed latest digital technology to support the tracking of prices, market access, food quality and supply chain efficiency. In total, WFP aims to reach some 867,000 people across the country.
More than 4 million people – 44 percent of the rural population – are in need of emergency food assistance. Malnutrition has reached or exceeded emergency levels. Programmes involving the creation of assets, such as water harvesting and irrigation systems, are designed to help people build resilience to future shocks and become better able to cope with extreme weather events such as drought. WFP is also implementing emergency school feeding and nutritional support in health clinics for the treatment and prevention of moderate acute malnutrition among pregnant and nursing women, children under the age of 5 and people with HIV.